Montenegro [+]Compare [E]dit [H]istory

Aliases: Crna Gora, People's Republic of Montenegro, Republic of Montenegro, Socialist Republic of Montenegro

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Object «Montenegro» has attributes

Attribute Value
Area 13,812 km²
Continent Europe
Land area 13,452 km²
Water area 360 km²
Land boundaries 680 km
Border countries
  • Albania
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Croatia
  • Kosovo
  • Serbia
Coastline 293.50 km
Mean elevation 1,086 m
Lowest point 0 m
Highest point 2,522 m
Population 609,859
Official languages
  • Montenegrin
Religion Orthodox
Long country name Add
Short country name Montenegro
Long local name Add
Short local name Crna Gora
Former name
  • People's Republic of Montenegro
  • Republic of Montenegro
  • Socialist Republic of Montenegro
Government type Parliamentary republic
Capital Podgorica
GDP (PPP) 11,080,000,000 USD
GDP (OER) 4,784,000,000 USD
GDP (real growth rate) 4.3 %
GDP - per capita (PPP) 17,800 USD
Gross national saving 13.2 % of GDP
Labor force 273,200
Unemployment rate 16.1 %
Population below poverty line 8.6 %
Budget revenues 1,780,000,000 USD
Budget expenditures 2,050,000,000 USD
Military expenditures 1.66 % of GDP
Taxes and other revenues 37.2 % of GDP
Budget surplus or deficit -5.6 % of GDP
Public debt 67.2 % of GDP
Inflation rate 2.4 %
Central bank discount rate Add
Commercial bank prime lending rate 6.81 %
Stock of narrow money 1,284,000,000 USD
Stock of broad money 2,370,000,000 USD
Stock of domestic credit 3,239,000,000 USD
Market value of publicly traded shares 3,425,000,000 USD
Current account balance -780,000,000 USD
Exports 422,200,000 USD
Imports 2,618,000,000 USD
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 1,077,000,000 USD
External debt 2,516,000,000 USD
National currency euros
National currency (code) EUR
National currency (symbol)
National currency rate to USD 0.885

The use of the name Crna Gora or Black Mountain (Montenegro) began in the 13th century in reference to a highland region in the Serbian province of Zeta. The later medieval state of Zeta maintained its existence until 1496 when Montenegro finally fell under Ottoman rule. Over subsequent centuries, Montenegro managed to maintain a level of autonomy within the Ottoman Empire. From the 16th to 19th centuries, Montenegro was a theocracy ruled by a series of bishop princes; in 1852, it transformed into a secular principality. Montenegro was recognized as an independent sovereign principality at the Congress of Berlin in 1878. After World War I, during which Montenegro fought on the side of the Allies, Montenegro was absorbed by the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, which became the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929. At the conclusion of World War II, it became a constituent republic of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. When the latter dissolved in 1992, Montenegro joined with Serbia, creating the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and, after 2003, shifting to a looser State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. In May 2006, Montenegro invoked its right under the Constitutional Charter of Serbia and Montenegro to hold a referendum on independence from the two-state union. The vote for severing ties with Serbia barely exceeded 55% - the threshold set by the EU - allowing Montenegro to formally restore its independence on 3 June 2006. In 2017, Montenegro joined NATO and is currently completing its EU accession process, having officially applied to join the EU in December 2008.

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