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Aliases: Ukrainian National Republic, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, Ukrainian State, Ukrayina

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Object «Ukraine» has attributes

Attribute Value
Area 603,550 km²
Continent Europe
Land area 579,330 km²
Water area 24,220 km²
Land boundaries 5,618 km
Border countries
  • Belarus
  • Hungary
  • Moldova
  • Poland
  • Romania
  • Russia
  • Slovakia
Coastline 2,782 km
Mean elevation 175 m
Lowest point 0 m
Highest point 2,061 m
Population 43,922,939
Official languages
  • Ukrainian
Religion Orthodox
Long country name Add
Short country name Ukraine
Long local name Add
Short local name Ukrayina
Former name
  • Ukrainian National Republic
  • Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
  • Ukrainian State
Government type Semi-presidential republic
Capital Kyiv
GDP (PPP) 369,600,000,000 USD
GDP (OER) 112,100,000,000 USD
GDP (real growth rate) 2.5 %
GDP - per capita (PPP) 8,800 USD
Gross national saving 18.9 % of GDP
Labor force 17,990,000
Unemployment rate 9.2 %
Population below poverty line 3.8 %
Budget revenues 29,820,000,000 USD
Budget expenditures 31,550,000,000 USD
Military expenditures 3.78 % of GDP
Taxes and other revenues 26.6 % of GDP
Budget surplus or deficit -1.5 % of GDP
Public debt 71 % of GDP
Inflation rate 14.4 %
Central bank discount rate 22 %
Commercial bank prime lending rate 16.38 %
Stock of narrow money 21,920,000,000 USD
Stock of broad money 21,920,000,000 USD
Stock of domestic credit 63,630,000,000 USD
Market value of publicly traded shares 20,710,000,000 USD
Current account balance -2,088,000,000 USD
Exports 39,690,000,000 USD
Imports 49,060,000,000 USD
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 18,810,000,000 USD
External debt 130,000,000,000 USD
National currency hryvnia
National currency (code) UAH
National currency (symbol)
National currency rate to USD 26.71

Ukraine was the center of the first eastern Slavic state, Kyivan Rus, which during the 10th and 11th centuries was the largest and most powerful state in Europe. Weakened by internecine quarrels and Mongol invasions, Kyivan Rus was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and eventually into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The cultural and religious legacy of Kyivan Rus laid the foundation for Ukrainian nationalism through subsequent centuries. A new Ukrainian state, the Cossack Hetmanate, was established during the mid-17th century after an uprising against the Poles. Despite continuous Muscovite pressure, the Hetmanate managed to remain autonomous for well over 100 years. During the latter part of the 18th century, most Ukrainian ethnographic territory was absorbed by the Russian Empire. Following the collapse of czarist Russia in 1917, Ukraine achieved a short-lived period of independence (1917-20), but was reconquered and endured a brutal Soviet rule that engineered two forced famines (1921-22 and 1932-33) in which over 8 million died. In World War II, German and Soviet armies were responsible for 7 to 8 million more deaths. Although Ukraine achieved independence in 1991 with the dissolution of the USSR, democracy and prosperity remained elusive as the legacy of state control and endemic corruption stalled efforts at economic reform, privatization, and civil liberties. A peaceful mass protest referred to as the "Orange Revolution" in the closing months of 2004 forced the authorities to overturn a rigged presidential election and to allow a new internationally monitored vote that swept into power a reformist slate under Viktor YUSHCHENKO. Subsequent internal squabbles in the YUSHCHENKO camp allowed his rival Viktor YANUKOVYCH to stage a comeback in parliamentary (Rada) elections, become prime minister in August 2006, and be elected president in February 2010. In October 2012, Ukraine held Rada elections, widely criticized by Western observers as flawed due to use of government resources to favor ruling party candidates, interference with media access, and harassment of opposition candidates. President YANUKOVYCH's backtracking on a trade and cooperation agreement with the EU in November 2013 - in favor of closer economic ties with Russia - and subsequent use of force against students, civil society activists, and other civilians in favor of the agreement led to a three-month protest occupation of Kyiv's central square. The government's use of violence to break up the protest camp in February 2014 led to all out pitched battles, scores of deaths, international condemnation, and the president's abrupt departure for Russia. New elections in the spring allowed pro-West president Petro POROSHENKO to assume office in June 2014; he was succeeded by Volodymyr ZELENSKY in May 2019. Shortly after YANUKOVYCH's departure in late February 2014, Russian President PUTIN ordered the invasion of Ukraine's Crimean Peninsula falsely claiming the action was to protect ethnic Russians living there. Two weeks later, a "referendum" was held regarding the integration of Crimea into the Russian Federation. The "referendum" was condemned as illegitimate by the Ukrainian Government, the EU, the US, and the UN General Assembly (UNGA). In response to Russia's purported annexation of Crimea, 100 members of the UN passed UNGA resolution 68/262, rejecting the "referendum" as baseless and invalid and confirming the sovereignty, political independence, unity, and territorial integrity of Ukraine. Russia also continues to supply proxies in two of Ukraine's eastern provinces with manpower, funding, and materiel resulting in an armed conflict with the Ukrainian Government. Representatives from Ukraine, Russia, and the unrecognized Russia proxy republics signed the Minsk Protocol and Memorandum in September 2014 to end the conflict. However, this agreement failed to stop the fighting. In a renewed attempt to alleviate ongoing clashes, leaders of Ukraine, Russia, France, and Germany negotiated a follow-on package of measures in February 2015 to implement the Minsk agreements. Representatives from Ukraine, Russia, France, Germany, and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe also meet regularly to facilitate implementation of the peace deal. More than 10,000 civilians have been killed or wounded as a result of the Russian intervention in eastern Ukraine.    

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