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Aliases: Rossiya, Rossiyskaya Federatsiya, Russian Empire, Russian Federation

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Object «Russia» has attributes

Attribute Value
Area 17,098,242 km²
Continent Asia
Land area 16,377,742 km²
Water area 720,500 km²
Land boundaries 22,408 km
Border countries
  • Azerbaijan
  • Belarus
  • China
  • Estonia
  • Finland
  • Georgia
  • Kazakhstan
  • Latvia
  • Lithuania
  • Mongolia
  • North Korea
  • Norway
  • Poland
  • Ukraine
Coastline 37,653 km
Mean elevation 600 m
Lowest point -28 m
Highest point 5,642 m
Population 141,722,205
Official languages
  • Russian
Religion Russian Orthodox
Long country name Russian Federation
Short country name Russia
Long local name Rossiyskaya Federatsiya
Short local name Rossiya
Former name
  • Russian Empire
  • Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
Government type Semi-presidential federation
Capital Moscow
GDP (PPP) 4,016,000,000,000 USD
GDP (OER) 1,578,000,000,000 USD
GDP (real growth rate) 1.5 %
GDP - per capita (PPP) 27,900 USD
Gross national saving 26.5 % of GDP
Labor force 76,530,000
Unemployment rate 5.2 %
Population below poverty line 13.3 %
Budget revenues 258,600,000,000 USD
Budget expenditures 281,400,000,000 USD
Military expenditures 3.93 % of GDP
Taxes and other revenues 16.4 % of GDP
Budget surplus or deficit -1.4 % of GDP
Public debt 15.5 % of GDP
Inflation rate 3.7 %
Central bank discount rate 10 %
Commercial bank prime lending rate 10.55 %
Stock of narrow money 255,200,000,000 USD
Stock of broad money 255,200,000,000 USD
Stock of domestic credit 940,400,000,000 USD
Market value of publicly traded shares 635,900,000,000 USD
Current account balance 35,440,000,000 USD
Exports 353,000,000,000 USD
Imports 238,000,000,000 USD
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 432,700,000,000 USD
External debt 539,600,000,000 USD
National currency Russian rubles
National currency (code) RUB
National currency (symbol) руб
National currency rate to USD 58.39

Founded in the 12th century, the Principality of Muscovy was able to emerge from over 200 years of Mongol domination (13th-15th centuries) and to gradually conquer and absorb surrounding principalities. In the early 17th century, a new ROMANOV Dynasty continued this policy of expansion across Siberia to the Pacific. Under PETER I (ruled 1682-1725), hegemony was extended to the Baltic Sea and the country was renamed the Russian Empire. During the 19th century, more territorial acquisitions were made in Europe and Asia. Defeat in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05 contributed to the Revolution of 1905, which resulted in the formation of a parliament and other reforms. Devastating defeats and food shortages in World War I led to widespread rioting in the major cities of the Russian Empire and to the overthrow in 1917 of the ROMANOV Dynasty. The communists under Vladimir LENIN seized power soon after and formed the USSR. The brutal rule of Iosif STALIN (1928-53) strengthened communist rule and Russian dominance of the Soviet Union at a cost of tens of millions of lives. After defeating Germany in World War II as part of an alliance with the US (1939-1945), the USSR expanded its territory and influence in Eastern Europe and emerged as a global power. The USSR was the principal adversary of the US during the Cold War (1947-1991). The Soviet economy and society stagnated in the decades following Stalin's rule, until General Secretary Mikhail GORBACHEV (1985-91) introduced glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) in an attempt to modernize communism, but his initiatives inadvertently released forces that by December 1991 led to the dissolution of the USSR into Russia and 14 other independent states. Following economic and political turmoil during President Boris YELTSIN's term (1991-99), Russia shifted toward a centralized authoritarian state under President Vladimir PUTIN (2000-2008, 2012-present) in which the regime seeks to legitimize its rule through managed elections, populist appeals, a foreign policy focused on enhancing the country's geopolitical influence, and commodity-based economic growth. Russia faces a largely subdued rebel movement in Chechnya and some other surrounding regions, although violence still occurs throughout the North Caucasus.

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